1. Coastal States: They are states having sea coast, such as Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, Sweden, Finland, Canada, etc.
2. Land-locked States: They are states having no sea coast. In accordance with the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea, these states have the right to go to the sea back from the sea to enjoy other rights (freedom of navigation, right of innocent passage through the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone...), right to have fleets under their national flags, right to exploit the surplus regarding living resources in exclusive economic zones of coastal states under agreements reached with those states. Land-locked states have the right of transit through other states in accordance with agreements reached with those states. The transit is to be made on the basis of ensuring the interests of the land-locked states and the legitimate interests of the concerned transit states.
Currently, there are 44 land-locked States in the world, such as Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Bhutan, Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Switzerland, Central African Republic, Zambia, Rwanda, Bolivia, Paraguay, etc.
3. Archipelagic States: In accordance with Article 46 of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea, “archipelagic state” means a state constituted wholly by one or more archipelagos and may include other islands, such as the Philippines, Indonesia, Iceland, Papua New Guinea, Fiji ...
Although Viet Nam has a number of islands and archipelagos, it is a coastal state, not an archipelagic one.